Jaqueline Tyrwhitt’s Contribution: From the 7th C.I.A.M. Grid to the Ekistics Grid
Keywords:urban planning, 7th C.I.A.M., Organicism, urban grid
In this essay we are discussing a turning point in the urban thinking of the 20th century related to the transition from a static view of the city to a view of the city as an evolving living organism. We are exploring the paradigm shift from the urban grid of the 7th C.I.A.M. to the urban grid of the last phase of the science of Ekistics (C. A. Doxiadis) by focusing on the contribution of Jaqueline Tyrwhitt. First, we analyze the urban grid as a result of the considerations of the post war functionalist urbanism of the 7th C.I.A.M. Then we present the basic characteristics of the science of the human settlements called Ekistics and analyze its grid accordingly. Comparing the two grids, we highlight the introduction of the concepts of ‘change’ and ‘system’ as distinctive of the above-mentioned paradigm shift. Third, we explain Jaqueline Tyrwhitt’s contribution in this paradigm shift. Finally, we explain how Tyrwhitt formulated her own humanistic and ecological conception of urban planning having been influenced by the biologist and urban planner Patrick Geddes and his conception of the city as a living organism, which was part of the wider interaction between concepts in biology and the social sciences.
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